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4 septembre 2010 6 04 /09 /septembre /2010 03:07

Édité par le United States Department of State en 2009







Ce livret regroupe quelques-uns des discours les plus marquants qu’a prononcés Barack Obama au cours de ces sept dernières années. De son intervention contre la guerre en Irak d’octobre 2002 jusqu’à son discours d’adresse présidentielle le 20 janvier 2009, on peut ainsi mieux cerner l’homme qui a redonné confiance aux États-Unis et a suscité une vague d’intérêt sans précédent à l’étranger. Au-delà du slogan réducteur « Yes We Can! », les extraits proposés laissent apercevoir un humaniste, profondément convaincu du besoin qu’ont les États-Unis de tourner la page G.W. Bush pour renouer avec le rêve américain. Sur un ton parfois quasiment messianique, Barack Obama n’a de cesse de répéter sa foi en l’idéal démocratique et patriotique américain. En ce qui concerne la politique étrangère des États-Unis, il réaffirme sa volonté de combattre le terrorisme international tout en déplorant la guerre engagée en Irak. Sans renier le leadership états-unien « We remain the most prosperous, powerful nation on Earth. », il tranche avec son prédécesseur en affirmant inlassablement sa volonté de travailler de concert avec les autres États du monde. Prônant à la fois un retrait des troupes US en Irak et un renforcement de l’effort de guerre en Afghanistan, Barack Obama incarne une diplomatie américaine plus soucieuse de l’avis de ses alliés mais toujours aussi inflexible quant il s’agit de combattre ses ennemis déclarés. Évidemment ce livret constitue surtout une somme de bonnes intentions, et chaque parole du nouveau président ne peut être prise pour argent comptant. Il permet néanmoins de saisir quels champs d’interventions sont aujourd’hui considérés prioritaires par Barack Obama.



Suivent ci-dessous quelques morceaux choisis de ses discours, qui reflètent bien selon moi le nouveau positionnement international et la nouvelle pensée géostratégique des États-Unis :


En termes de géostratégie globale


“We will begin to responsibly leave Iraq to its people, and forge a hard-earned peace in Afghanistan. With old friends and former foes, we will work tirelessly to lessen the nuclear threat, and roll back the spectre of a warming planet.”  (20 janvier 2009)


“As President, I will pursue a tough, smart and principled national security strategy— one that recognizes that we have interests not just in Baghdad, but in Kandahar and Karachi, in Tokyo and London, in Beijing and Berlin. I will focus this strategy on five goals essential to making America safer: end­ing the war in Iraq responsibly; finishing the fight against al Qaeda and the Taliban; securing all nuclear weapons and ma­terials from terrorists and rogue states; achieving true energy security; and rebuilding our alliances to meet the challenges of the 21st century.” (15 juillet 2008)


“It’s time to strengthen our part­nerships with Japan, South Korea, Australia and the world’s largest democracy - India - to create a stable and prosperous Asia. It’s time to engage China on common interests like cli­mate change, even as we continue to encourage their shift to a more open and market-based society. It’s time to strengthen NATO by asking more of our allies, while always approaching them with the respect owed a partner. It’s time to reform the United Nations. ”  (15 juillet 2008)


“That’s why I’ll double our foreign assistance to $50 billion by 2012, and use it to support a stable future in failing states, and sustain­able growth in Africa; to halve global poverty and to roll back disease.” (15 juillet 2008)


Au sujet du nucléaire


“This is the moment when we must renew the goal of a world without nuclear weapons. It is time to secure all loose nuclear materials; to stop the spread of nuclear weapons; and to reduce the arsenals from another era. This is the moment to begin the work of seeking the peace of a world without nuclear weapons.” (24 juillet 2008)


“My third goal: securing all nuclear weapons and materials from terrorists and rogue states.” (15 juillet 2008)


“America seeks a world with no nuclear weap­ons. As long as nuclear weapons exist, we must retain a strong deterrent. But instead of threatening to kick them out of the G-8, we need to work with Russia to take U.S. and Russian ballistic missiles off hair-trigger alert; to dramatically reduce the stockpiles of our nuclear weapons and material; to seek a global ban on the production of fissile material for weapons; and to expand the U.S.-Russian ban on intermediate-range missiles so that the agreement is global. By keeping our com­mitment under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, we’ll be in a better position to press nations like North Korea and Iran to keep theirs.” (15 juillet 2008)


“Preventing Iran from developing nuclear weapons is a vital national security interest of the United States.” (15 juillet 2008)


Au sujet de l’armée américaine


“I will restore our strength by ending this war, complet­ing the increase of our ground forces by 65,000 soldiers and 27,000 marines, and investing in the capabilities we need to defeat conventional foes and meet the unconventional chal­lenges of our time. » (15 juillet 2008)


Au sujet de l’Irak


“What’s missing in our debate about Iraq — what has been missing since before the war began — is a discussion of the strategic consequences of Iraq and its dominance of our foreign policy.” (15 juillet 2008)


“Now is the time for a responsible redeployment of our combat troops that pushes Iraq’s leaders toward a political solution, rebuilds our military, and refocuses on Afghanistan and our broader security interests.” (15 juillet 2008)


“Most of you know I opposed this war from the start. I thought it was a tragic mistake. (…)America, it’s time to start bringing our troops home. ” (10 février 2007)


“What I am opposed to is a dumb war. A rash war. A war based not on reason but on passion, not on principle but on politics. Now let me be clear - I suffer no illusions about Saddam Hus­sein. He is a brutal man. A ruthless man. A man who butchers his own people to secure his own power. ... He’s a bad guy. The world, and the Iraqi people, would be better off without him.

I know that even a successful war against Iraq will require a U.S. occupation of undetermined length, at undeter­mined cost, with undetermined consequences. I know that an invasion of Iraq without a clear rationale and without strong international support will only fan the flames of the Middle East, and encourage the worst, rather than best, impulses of the Arab world, and strengthen the recruitment arm of Al Qaeda. I am not opposed to all wars. I’m opposed to dumb wars.” (2 octobre 2002)


Au sujet de l’Afghanistan


“But my country and yours (ndlr : l’Allemagne) have a stake in seeing that NATO’s first mission beyond Europe’s borders is a success. For the people of Afghanistan and for our shared security, the work must be done. America cannot do this alone. The Afghan people need our troops and your troops; our support and your support to defeat the Taliban and al Qaeda, to develop their economy, and to help them rebuild their nation. We have too much at stake to turn back now.” (24 juillet 2008)


“The second goal of my new strat­egy will be taking the fight to al Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan. (…) I will send at least two additional combat brigades to Afghanistan, and use this commitment to seek greater contributions - with fewer restrictions - from NATO allies. (…)We need a stronger and sustained partner­ship between Afghanistan, Pakistan and NATO to secure the border, to take out terrorist camps, and to crack down on cross-border insurgents.” (15 juillet 2008)


Au sujet de la situation au Moyen-Orient


“This is the moment we must help answer the call for a new dawn in the Middle East. My country must stand with yours and with Europe in sending a direct message to Iran that it must abandon its nuclear ambitions. We must support the Lebanese who have marched and bled for democracy, and the Israelis and Palestinians who seek a secure and lasting peace. And despite past differences, this is the moment when the world should support the millions of Iraqis who seek to rebuild their lives, even as we pass responsibility to the Iraqi government and finally bring this war to a close.” (24 juillet 2008)


“It’s time to deepen our engage­ment to help resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict, so that we help our ally Israel achieve true and lasting security, while helping Palestinians achieve their legitimate aspirations for statehood.” (15 juillet 2008)


Au sujet de l’Islam


“To the Muslim world, we seek a new way forward, based on mutual interest and mutual respect.”    (20 janvier 2009)


Au sujet de l’Europe


“In Europe, the view that America is part of what has gone wrong in our world, rather than a force to help make it right, has become all too common. In America, there are voices that deride and deny the importance of Europe’s role in our security and our future. Both views miss the truth – that Europeans today are bearing new burdens and taking more responsibility in critical parts of the world; and that just as American basses built in the last century still help to defend the security of this continent, so does our country still sacrifice greatly for freedom around the globe.

Yes, there have been differences between America and Europe. No doubt, there will be differences in the future. But the burdens of global citizenship continue to bind us together.” (24 juillet 2008)





Par Matthieu Roger

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